There are various types of documentary sources. The most common types are books and articles in journals. In this module, you will learn to tell the difference between references to books and references to articles in journals.
This module will take roughly 10 minutes to complete.
No specific prior knowledge is required for this module.
The most striking characteristic of scientific publications is the provision of source references.
A reference is a statement of key details identifying a particular book, a particular chapter in a book or a particular journal article. A reference includes at least the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the document and the year of publication.
When you are looking for a document, it is important that you know what type of document it is. This is because you need to look for different types of document in different ways. (See the modules ‘How do I find books and articles?')
These serve to distinguish clearly between the findings of an author's own research and text and data that he or she has gleaned from other sources. Whenever you refer in your own work to the results of research carried out by someone else, you are expected to tell the reader where you found those results (by giving details of the article or book in which they were published). This is so that the reader may go back to the original publication and check out the information you have reproduced.</p>
<p>In scientific publications, the standard procedure is to include superscript numbers or bracketed details in the text,
referring the reader to a full specification of the source in a reference list. A reference list or a bibliography is a list of all the other sources of information referred to in the publication.
You can tell from a reference what kind of document it relates to.
A reference to a book is the simplest kind of reference. It consists of the author's name, the publication year, the book title, and the town/city of publication and publisher's name (or just the town/city of publication).
A few examples of references to books are presented below.
NB: Move your mouse over the references to see what each element means.
As you can see, the publication year is sometimes given at the start of the reference and sometimes at the end; sometimes the name of the publisher is included and sometimes it isn't.
Unlike a book, a journal does not have a single publication date, since it is published periodically. The various issues appearing in a given year form a volume, and over time there may be many annual volumes. A reference to a journal article therefore needs to include additional information: as well as naming the author, the title of the article and the title of the journal in which the article appeared, it is also necessary to specify the year of publication, the volume number and the issue number.
A few examples of references to journal articles are presented below.
NB: Move your mouse over the references to see what each element means.
Sometimes, a book is a collection of separate publications, with each chapter written by a different author. In such cases, the overall control over what goes into the book lies with one or several people, known as editors. A reference to a chapter in a book of this kind contains both information about the particular chapter and information about the book as a whole. The information about the chapter is given first.
An example of a reference to a chapter is presented below.
NB: Move your mouse over the reference to see what each element means
Mirza, H. (et al) (2000) Foreign direct investment in ASEAN: a contemporary perspective. In: Strange, R. Slater, J. and Molteni, C. (eds.) The European Union and ASEAN: trade and investment issues. New York: Macmillan Press.
A reference to a chapter therefore contains additional information:
A reference to a document contains bibliographic data concerning that document. All references have to include at least the author's name, the title of the document and the year of publication.
References to different types of document have the following distinguishing features:
|Book||1 x author(s) name(s)
1 x title
City of publication
Publisher's name (sometimes)
|Chapter in a book||
2 x author(s) name(s): author(s) of the chapter and editor(s) of the book
|Journal article||1 x author(s) name(s)
2 x title: title of the article and title of the journal
Volume and issue numbers (usually)
Page number(s) (usually)
No city of publication
No publisher's name
There are protocols governing the way references are structured, but they differ from one discipline to another.
NARCIS is dé nationale portal voor wie informatie zoekt over wetenschappers en hun werk. Naast wetenschappers maken ook studenten, journalisten en medewerkers binnen onderwijs, overheid en het bedrijfsleven gebruik van NARCIS.
NARCIS biedt toegang tot wetenschappelijke informatie waaronder (open access) publicaties afkomstig uit de repositories van alle Nederlandse universiteiten, KNAW, NWO en diverse wetenschappelijke instellingen, datasets van een aantal data-archieven, alsmede beschrijvingen van onderzoeksprojecten, onderzoekers en onderzoeksinstituten.
Dit houdt in dat NARCIS (nog) niet gebruikt kan worden als ingang tot complete overzichten van publicaties van onderzoekers. Er zijn echter steeds meer instellingen die al hun wetenschappelijke publicaties via NARCIS toegankelijk maken. Op deze wijze kunnen de publicatielijsten van de wetenschappers zo compleet mogelijk worden gemaakt.
In 2004 is de ontwikkeling van NARCIS gestart als een samenwerkingsproject van KNAW Onderzoek Informatie, NWO, VSNU en METIS in het kader van de dienstenontwikkeling binnen het DARE-programma van SURFfoundation. Dit project heeft de portal NARCIS verwezenlijkt, waarin in januari 2007 de dienst DAREnet is geïncorporeerd. Sinds 2011 is NARCIS een dienst van DANS.
A MOOC is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.
National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System
NARCIS is the main national portal for those looking for information about researchers and their work. Besides researchers, NARCIS is also used by students, journalists and people working in educational and government institutions as well as the business sector.
NARCIS provides access to scientific information, including (open access) publications from the repositories of all the Dutch universities, KNAW, NWO and a number of research institutes, datasets from some data archives as well as descriptions of research projects, researchers and research institutes.
This means that NARCIS cannot be used as an entry point to access complete overviews of publications of researchers (yet). However, there are more institutions that make all their scientific publications accessible via NARCIS. By doing so, it will become possible to create much more complete publication lists of researchers.
In 2004, the development of NARCIS started as a cooperation project of KNAW Research Information, NWO, VSNU and METIS, as part of the development of services within the DARE programme of SURFfoundation. This project resulted in the NARCIS portal, in which the DAREnet service was incorporated in January 2007. NARCIS has been part of DANS since 2011.
When people create educational resources, they may choose to share them with others openly and freely. This means that others can use these materials as part of their courses and lessons without permission. A creator of an open textbook, for example, can give explicit permission to others to use their book free of charge. We call these open education resources (OER).
Read more about it in our LibGuide Resource Centre for Education Resources and Copyright